Implicit and Explicit memory

Hi all, 

Could someone please direct me to any articles that discuss the use of implicit and explict memory with respect to how one learns to play piano (or any instrument, for that matter)?

Thanks, and stay safe,



  • Hi Paula,

    This isn't quite what you asked for, but may be relevant: Robert A. Duke, Carla Davis Cash, and Sarah E. Allen, "Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music," Journal of Research in Music Education 59 No. 1 (2011), 44–55. The authors conclude that performance was most accurate when students focused on the results of their actions rather than the actions themselves.

    Hope this helps!


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